A BLOG BY

ADHY NUGROHO




Some people believe that printed book is the authentic book best for telling (as the writer) and getting (as the reader) the substance of the idea. However, as the technology being developed, books also evolve. Digital book provide some characteristics that alike to printed, such as flexibelity and closeness. In addition, digital book enhanced the printed one as it has some features printed book does not have.

In the article titled Picture Books In The Digital Age, written by Frank Serafini, Danielle Kachorsky, and Earl Aguilera, it is given some challenges and possibility from digital picture books used for learning. But before it is discussing about those, this article gives the kinds and characteristics of each kinds.

The first kind of digital picture book is Tableu. It is similar to printed book but responsive and fit to the screen. Sometimes, it looks like 2-pages spread printed book in the screen. The second is Transitional. This kind of digital books give varieties of transitions. The last is Interactive. As its name, it is possible to the reader to interact to the other real things. The three of them can also provide sounds, outer links, and some options of setting.

The challenge from digital picture book for learning is distraction. Some of features can easily distract the reader to the content of the book, such as game-thing and some useless. The second is that some of them only provide one thing in a screen; it is not placed together with the others. On the other word it is displayed separately.

However, digital picture book has privileges printed book does not. It has multimodality of sounds, music, narrative, and outer link. Because of that, teacher can use variety method to teach their students. This is an important thing we should not refuse that technology is developing. Teaching medias also adapt, and teacher should prepare it wisely.




In the previous post, I had discussed about gender neutral pronoun. Today I will discuss about the picture of the textbooks. In the last discussion, I quoted a question from my lecturer "Why doctor usually be illustrated by a man, and cooking activity usually woman?" When my lecturer talked about the possibility to do research about sexism in our textbooks, I found that it is an interesting thing to do. Until I found a paper titled Representation of Gender in English Textbooks in Indonesia. This paper was written by Fadhila Yonata and Yan Mujiyanto, from Semarang State University. My first impression in my head was "Our society must be so patriarchy", but is it true?

This paper started from the belief that it is an urgency to talk about gender equality in education. As the writers consider that it is an international issue, they build the introduction from the roots; Lakoff (1973) that revealed the women condition which is lower than man became a starter to some authorities to reframe education process. Then, UNESCO held convention producing a term Education For All. Until today, it becomes something necessary to be given an attention.

The most important thing here is that the textbooks have power and opportunity to bring values and norm that believed as a correctness. This paper also gives an information about a possibility the learner, consciously or not, build such kind of interaction and make input from it.

From two books as sample, Bahasa Inggris and Aim High, they found that males are dominating females in the exercises and images part. The books produce the male character as privileged in education, social, and outdoor activities. For example, in Education activity, Bahasa Inggris has 15 males playing the role and 9 females. In Science and Engineering, there are 5 males playing the role and 0 females. On the other hand, Aim High equal in Education activity, and 2 males-3 females in Engineering.

This paper provides a lot of discussions and the evidence about stereotyping among gender. Ultimately, my first thought nearly right, we are still in this patriarchy space. That gender determines (in expression stage) education, social status, or activities is still perpetuated. Finally, it suggests the stakeholders to provide the suitable main source of English textbooks, and the teacher's management in the classroom to equalize gender roles through selecting appropriate materials.


When my lecturer asked, "Why doctor usually be illustrated by a man, and cooking activity usually woman?" I directly remembered a discussion about the sexist of translation machine; for example, Google Translate: Click Here to Read. Then, I found an article titled The Use and Evolution of Gender-Neutral Language in an Intentional Community written by Jolane Flaningan. By looking at the title, I imagine that it will discuss something I told before, and also the solution; for example, as I know, the use of Mx. as a gender-neutral honorific: Click Here to Read

Today's problem, when most of the people considering to respect the diversity of personal values; including sexual and/or gender orientation, make it important to discuss gender-neutral language. In addition, this article was published in 2013, years before the amendment of LGBT+ marriage legalization in America; as the writer was from Rocky Mountain College, Montana, USA. 

By its title, of course, it focused on sexist language, culture, feminist identity, and neutral pronoun. It also gives a discussion about the use of "co" as a gender-neutral pronoun. Sometimes, I think that we need gender-neutral language (especially pronoun) to end up the awkwardness to greet someone, whether I should say, "He" or "She". It said that "Co means he, she, his, hers, him, and her."

I remember, after signed-up to Instagram, it asked whether I prefer to be called "He", "She", or "They" to show it in the notification. This article cited (Baron, 1986; Miller & Swift, 1977) about what it said "They" as a gender-neutral pronoun or the use of both: s/he or she or he. However, because it gives a discourse of the use of "co" pronoun, it mainly referred to Twin Oaks community, they who use it.

The references actually trustworthy, while unfortunately one of the important source titled Leaves of Twin Oaks (1971) was written by unknown. Despite that thing, It will easily help us as a reader to understand the use of "co" pronoun. It is simple actually. The problem is it is used by a small community, not the world. Farther is to bring it into reform strategies, for example political.

Overall, Woman and Language journal, the journal containing this, has a nice appearance. It different with the others flat-layouted paper. It has font-variation and space to put an emphasis. Love it!

In 2017, an article of conversation between Sian Bayne and Petar Jandric was published by Addleton Academic Publisher in Knowledge Cultures journal; the title is From Anthropocentric Humanism To Critical Posthuman in Digital Education. They talked about posthumanism and the relation with human learning.

Bayne is the author of The Manifesto for teaching online (2016; as Digital Education Group). She is a professor of Digital Education, the background of hers includes English literature, digitization, museum heritage, and open education. They were talking not only based on The Manifesto but also referring to Prensky's Digital native, digital immigrant (2001).

They discussed that posthumanism is important as education should see the human as the transcendent observer of the world instead of entangled with it. They also talk about cyborg and the uncanniness of digital learning, the approach, and the digital experiences of social topologies distance of students. They see no more privilege to the on-campus learning while online can be better; they call it digital privilege.

Digital education implicates learning as we already know, as simple as, that artificial intelligence like Siri and Google Translate machine are widely used. Today we live in a cyberspace with the algorithm and its uncanniness that digital society is an inevitability.

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